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Safety at Work

high risk work environmentsWorking at heights

Any activity, work or work required to be performed at a physical height or above 1.80 meters measured from the floor is considered. In which it is compulsory to wear a parachute harness with two security lines.

DEFINITION

Shock absorber: A device designed to dissipate impact energy in case of falls reducing the maximum suspension force and extending deceleration distance.

Anchor or anchor point: The structural, strong or secure point part which is used to attach or any system / equipment protection against risk of accidental fall, such as lifelines and subject lines with impact damping device .

Full body harness: It is an industrial full body harness or restraining harness to stop free or severe fall of a person, being an obligation for all personnel working at height at 1.80 meters or more.

Falling from heights: Word with which those working at height, above the floor and at risk of collapse are identified.

Security queues: A fixture of the harness, using the Worker at height, for repositioning and safety from falls.

Strobe: Connection Element flexible material, which together with a shock absorber is used as a connection system (SPDC)

Lifeline: They are components of a system / equipment fall protection, consisting of a nylon string or galvanized steel cable installed horizontally or vertically stretched and held in three or two anchor points to provide mobility to staff working on elevated areas.

Fall arrest system (SPDC): Set of interconnected components and subsystems.

Operating Procedure

Systems and equipment for protection against falls from height risks, such as harnesses, subject lines, lifelines or other safety devices are essential elements and components to protect the integrity of each worker should work at heights, so So when work is carried out in physical height is required that the worker use a fall protection system according to the research.

Risks
Injuries from falls at different levels due to:

• Collapse of scaffolding.
• Falls vacuum by inadequate working platforms.
• Falls vacuum for not wearing safety harness.
• Risk climbing, working and going down.
• Risk to eventual rescue.
• Fall from different level when working on scaffolding, ladders, platforms, etc.
• Loss of materials, tools, trimmings, slag, helmets, etc., about people passing under the work area.

Recommendations
Before the execution of work at height, make the following analysis:

to. Before finding a solution – the danger and work surface should be assessed.
b. What are the conditions and behaviors that should be considered?
c. How you reach the work area?
d. What are the dangers below the work area?
e. How high the workspace is?
f. Are there any holes or cracks under or around the work area?
g. Is there a danger of slipping or tripping around the work area?
h. How difficult it is to rescue someone if you fall? i. Is there power lines in the work area?

Control measures
• The working platforms must be protected vacuum at its free perimeter, by a railing to prevent the fall of persons and materials.
• In all work at height will be isolated and signaled areas over the lower levels to avoid damage from possible falling objects, materials or tools.
• The means of fall protection have to be placed properly and keep in good condition, and should not be manipulated, modified, much less eliminated.
• must evaluate work surface height for a good selection of harness D ring over the back, hip and double lifeline.

Requirements and demands
All equipment and personal protection systems against fall hazards in working at heights must be approved and be certified according to official regulations.

Instructions on the correct use of fall protection systems Height.

• All workers before using any type of system or personal protective equipment against high risk of falling, should receive training and coaching by a specially appointed person to give such instructions. (The expert in risk prevention or supervisor of the respective area).

• The worker will need to provide all necessary information in this process and one that requires specific about the risks of fall in height, which are associated with operations at different levels.

Training should contemplate the following information:
Risks of working at height.
Proper use of the systems / PPE (instructions).
System components fall protection in height.
Limitations of use of equipment.
Required facilities.
Correct anchoring systems.
Techniques correct connection of the various components of systems / equipment.
Periodic inspection of the system / equipment that the user must perform.
Maintenance and storage of equipment / system.
Rethink
Reflection on this procedure must be repeated each time the worker is to deliver a type of system or different to that used protective equipment.

Inspection Systems and Personal Protective Equipment against falls from height Risks

• All components of the fall protection system height (harness, security lines, absorbers etc.) must be subjected to visual inspection before each use for signs of deterioration or damage defects.

• subject lines or strops, lifeline, fasteners fall or safety grippers, sliders or cable trolleys steel retractable life line metal parts or fittings that are exposed to adverse environments atmospheres , inspections and review these should be made quarterly or more frequently depending on the conditions to which they are subjected, inspection shall be in the form of inspections Hernán Videla Lira Foundry, whose model is included in Annex 01.

• The complete inspection systems or personal protective equipment against fall hazards of working at heights must be done by responsible and competent people with knowledge and experience necessary to properly check the equipment / system.

• The result of the inspection and / or any deficiency that does not meet the specifications and requirements defined and established in this regulation, it should be duly noted leaving written the date of each inspection of the equipment record and the comments that are made with signature and name of the person who performed the inspection at the record of the inspection of equipment and systems for personal protection against the risk of falls from height.

• systems or equipment present any alteration, anomaly or substandard condition, shall be removed and removed from service immediately.

• All those systems or personal protective equipment against fall hazards in working at heights which have been subjected to accidental impacts due to a free fall or a test run should be removed (belts, harnesses, shock absorber) and disposed of service, as accessories may have been affected by excessive stress and weakened.

• Each system component or protective equipment must be inspected by the user before each use to detect damaged components, broken, damaged connections or couplings, wear, cracks, signs of deterioration and substandard conditions involving risk to the user to use the system or equipment.

• If evidence of any damage, defect or substandard condition, shall be reported and properly informed by the user to direct leadership or the Department of Risk Prevention.

• During the inspection, it must conduct a full review of the device / system and should place special emphasis on the presence of the following signs of damage or deterioration:

• Cuts or breaks in the fabric or belt as external fibers get cut or worn.
• Cracks.
• Burns.
• wear and tear.
• Stretch or excessive elongation. General deterioration.
• malfunctions.
• Corrosion exposure to acids or chemicals.

• hooks or carabiners defective or deformed, or springs flawed, inadequate or improper adjustment of the snaps.

• metal accessories such as buckles, rings in “D ”, rivets, etc. with cracks.

• Trizaduras, deformation or excessive wear pieces.

• systems or personal protective equipment against high-risk jobs should have a sticker that identifies the owner of the team and with the number coding team.

Storage Systems and Personal Protective Equipment for work at height with fall hazards.
Systems or equipment should be stored in a cool dry place where not receive direct sunlight.

Systems, Equipment and Components Protection for work at height
Full Body Harnesses (parachute)
• The industrial full body harness or harness complete subjection of the body, is part of a protection system or equipment to stop the free fall of a person, and its mandatory use for all personnel working at height to 1.80 meters or more.

• It is especially used in cases where the person should move or move from side to side in greater than or equal to 1.80 meters high.

• The full body harness consists of straps, belts woven nylon, polyester or other which are secured around a person’s body, so that in case of free fall, the forces of impact load generated by braking a fall, is distributed through the legs, hips, chest and shoulders pressures leading up and out. This condition helps to reduce the possibility that the user suffers injury when arrested his fall.

• The harness has also coupling elements necessary to allow connection with fall arrest system (type rings “D ”) to a subject or strobe line, a lifeline or a shock absorber device or deceleration device or shock absorption.

• The body harness, unlike the belt in case of a fall, distribute impact forces over a larger area of the body that the seat belt (belt type), and has the advantage of keeping upright a person in case of fall.

Applications

Industrial full body harness must be used by people who must carry out work at height or transit of incomplete permanent structures on the edges of a joist steel 1.80 meters and height from the floor, or close to incomplete surface, where they have floor openings or open spaces in the ground, suspended scaffolds, scaffold surfaces or incomplete railings.

The full body harness must be used for industrial applications where the free fall exceeds 1.80 meters.

– Incomplete permanent structures.

– On sloping ceilings whatever angle.

– A 3 meters from the edge of a roof from a high temporary floor.

– By removing a roof planks from a high temporary floor.

– While work is done on a lifting platform with an electrical or mechanical drive.

– In edges of a steel joist 1.80 meters over the floor or working level. Close to an area of incomplete work.

– Upon tasks on a scaffold. For as long as the person remains in the scaffold it must be tied to the closest sturdy structure.

– Upon hanging baskets suspended in approved work, you must hook the crane hook.

Restraint Line

• Also known as rope or strap and security line, the subject line is a component of a system or protective equipment to limit and / or arrest a fall, restricting the movement of the worker or limiting the user to fall.

It consists of a rope Perlon or strobe line or galvanized steel cable coated in rubber (to work with temperature). Its function is to unite the body of a person her harness connecting a bra lifeline or fall, a shock absorber (optional) or an anchorage connector.

• fastening lines or straps are of short length, between 1.2 and 1.80 meters.

• At both ends subject lines are attached, usually one or more hooks or carabiners that are used to connect the harness and lifeline.

Horizontal Lifelines

• Lifelines or Capes life, are components of a system / equipment fall protection, consisting of a galvanized steel cable ½ “in diameter, installed horizontally. stretched and clamped between two anchor points to provide mobility for staff working in high areas.

• The lifeline permits attachment or coupling directly or indirectly to the seat belt form, to the subject or strobe line, the full body harness, or a shock absorption device or buffer.

• For vertical and horizontal scrolling (perlon string 5/8 “diameter), in places with risk of freefall, sliding anchors connected to vertical or horizontal lives or any other authorized system permanently keep the person should be used connected to his harness to an anchor point.

• Lifelines shall comprise a single continuous cable. In exceptional cases where it should attach cables, Crosby type presses were used to fix cables.

• anchors to which the lifelines were fixed must withstand at least 1,000 kg. per insured person. As a rule of thumb to determine if the anchor is capable of withstanding the weight of a truck.

• life lines metal may be used by four people at a time.

• The horizontal lifeline will remain tense for closing and securing at least two kinds Crosby presses were used at each end.

• The horizontal lifeline must be attached to the support points, with Crosby (three presses) type presses.

• shall be installed so many strings of life as necessary.

• Nylon strings must not be used as cables life.

Vertical line

• It is composed of a string of Perlon 5/8 “in diameter, arranged vertically to arrest the fall of a person climbing steel towers for transmission lines, poles, thermal power plants, transmitting antennas, cat scales, places Construction of buildings, mines and other tall structures.

• The vertical line may be subject only to the coupling at the upper anchoring end and vertically fall freely to the floor, allowing the sliding connector fall protection system, in this case a gripper or holder security falls sliding on the lifeline.

• The vertical line can also be clamped and tensioned on the top and bottom in case the vertical line is steel cable.

• The vertical lifelines are used by one person.

• The vertical lifelines plumbed to be held by a small weight at its lower end or an appropriate setting.

Anchor or Anchor Point

• It is the structural part, or secure point source which is used to attach or any system / equipment protection against accidental fall hazards such as lifelines and subject lines with shock damping device.

• The anchor must resist at least 5,000 pounds per person or system / personal protective equipment you connect.

 

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