Basic Requirement for Safety at Work
– Elements of head protection basically boil down to safety helmets.
– Safety helmets provide protection against impact and penetration cases of objects falling on the head.
– Safety helmets can also protect against electric shocks and burns.
– The helmet should not fall on the head during work activities to avoid this can a strap attached to the jaw used.
– It is necessary to periodically inspect for cracks or damage that may reduce the degree of protection offered.
2 Protection of eyes and face.
– All workers running any operation that might endanger his eyes, will have appropriate protection for these organs.
– The goggles to workers engaged in operations that require the use of corrosive chemicals or the like, will be made of soft material that fits the face, resistant to attack by these substances.
– For cases of chalking lenses must be used with impact resistant moons.
– In case of an infrared filter provided shields should be used.
– Transparent masks can also be used to protect the face from impact of particles.
2.1 Eye protection: they are elements designed to protect the eyes, and within these are:
– Against particle projection.
– Against liquids, fumes, vapors and gases
– Against Radiation.
2.2 Face Protection: are elements designed to protect the eyes and face, within these are:
– Masks with eye protection (masks welder) are formed in a mask with filter lenses for ultraviolet and infrared rays.
– Face shields, allow protection against particles and other foreign bodies. They may be of transparent plastic, tempered glass or metal grid.
3 Protection of the ears.
– When the noise level exceeds 85 decibels, a point which is considered the upper limit for normal hearing, it is necessary to provide hearing protection to workers.
– The hearing protectors can be: rubber plugs or earmuffs (headphones).
– Stoppers are elements that are inserted into the ear canal to remain in place without any special fastening device.
– Earmuffs are hemispherical plastic elements filled with noise absorbent (porous material), which are held by a headband around his head.
4 Respiratory Protection.
– No respirator is able to prevent the entry of all air pollutants in the breathing zone of the user. Respirators help protect against certain contaminants in the air, reducing the concentrations in the breathing zone below the TLV or other recommended exposure levels. Improper use of respirators may result in overexposure to contaminants causing illness or death.
General limitations of use.
– These respirators do not supply oxygen.
– Do not use when concentrations of contaminants are dangerous to life or health, or in atmospheres containing less than 16% oxygen.
– Do not use respirators negative or positive pressure with face mask if there beards or other porosities in the face that does not allow setting tight fit.
Types of respirators.
– Mechanical filter respirators: dusts and mists.
– Chemical cartridge respirators: organic gases and vapors.
– Masks deposit: When the environment is flawed in the same gas or vapor.
– Respirators and masks with air supply: for environments where there are less than 16% oxygen by volume.
5 Protection of hands and arms.
– The gloves they provide to workers, will be selected according to the risks to which the user is exposed and the need for free movement of the fingers.
– Gloves should be appropriately sized and maintained in good condition.
– Gloves should not be used to work on or near moving or rotating machinery.
– Gloves that are broken, torn or chemical-impregnated materials should not be used.
Types of gloves.
– For handling rough or sharp edges materials using leather or canvas gloves is recommended.
– To check welding or casting where there is the risk of burns from hot material wear gloves and heat resistant sleeves is recommended.
– For electrical work must wear insulated gloves.
– When handling chemicals the use of long rubber gloves or neoprene gloves is recommended.
6 Protection of feet and legs.
– Safety shoes to protect the foot of workers from moisture and hot substances against rough surfaces being walked on and sharp objects and sharp falling object, so it must be protected against electrical hazards.
Types of footwear.
– For jobs where there is risk of falling heavy objects such as metal bars, plates, etc., it should be equipped with leather shoes with metal toe.
– For the electrical work must be leather shoes without any metal parts, the sole should be of an insulating material.
– To work in wet rubber boots will be used with non-slip soles.
– When working with molten metals or hot liquids shoe will fit the foot and ankle to prevent the entry of such materials through the slots.
– To protect the legs against the splash of molten metals it will provide security leggings, which must be resistant to heat.
7 Seat belts for work at height.
– Protection elements are used in work on height, to prevent falling worker.
– To carry out works to more than 1.8 meters above the floor level must provide the worker:
– Safety belt or harness hooked to a lifeline.
– When work clothes is selected shall be taken into account the risks to which workers can be exposed and those types that reduce risks to a minimum is selected.
Restrictions on Use.
– Work clothes should not offer danger of catching or being caught in the machine parts moving.
– Do not carry sharp objects in your pockets or points, or explosive or flammable materials.
– It is the obligation of staff to use work clothes provided by the company for the duration of the workday.
9 Protective Clothing.
– Special clothing is to be used as protection against certain specific risks, especially against manipulation of caustic or corrosive substances and which do not protect ordinary work clothes.
Type of protective clothing.
– The protective clothing and caps for workers exposed to corrosive or other harmful substances will be of rubber or rubber substances.
– To work function are provided with asbestos suits or aprons and ultimately cotton suits aluminized heat refracting used.
-to Work on computers that emit radiation (x-rays), lead aprons used
Advantages and Limitations of E.P.P.
– Speed of implementation.
– Greater availability of models on the market for different uses.
– Easy visualization of their use.
– Low cost, compared to other control systems.
– Easy to use.
– Create a false sense of security: be overwhelmed by the power of the pollutant or the material for which they were designed.
– There is a general lack of technical knowledge for its acquisition.
– Need a rigorous and periodic maintenance.
– In the long term, they present a high arena because of the needs, maintenances and replacements.
– Requires an additional monitoring effort.
For personal protection elements are effective should consider the following:
– Delivery of the protector to each user.
– Le responsibility of business is to provide appropriate PPE; the worker is using. The EPP single serving is one that has been selected and that the worker technically used throughout the exposure.
– Training about the risk that is being protected.
– Responsibility for monitoring the line on the right and permanent use of PPE.
– It is essential the participation of supervisors in controlling the proper use and maintenance of PPE. The supervisor should set an example by using them increasingly exposed to this risk.